What are some other commonly used terms in this field?

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)– ACEs are stressful or traumatic early life experiences that have been recognized as significant risk factors for a host of mental and physical health problems later in life. The original Adverse Childhood Experiences Study was conducted by Kaiser Permanente and the Centers for Disease Control in the 1990s. ACEs have been shown to have a dose-response relationship with many health problems (i.e., the more ACEs a person has, the higher the risk of developing health problems).

Ambulatory Intensive Care Unit (Ambulatory ICU) – Ambulatory ICU is a form of primary care designed to serve exclusively individuals with unstable chronic illness, complex behavioral health needs (including addiction), and often many social needs. In an ambulatory ICU model, people who are chronically ill have regular, frequent primary care visits. These routinized visits facilitate better relationships and allow clinicians to understand and treat issues before they become health crises or require referrals to specialists. The model has been found to reduce costs and improve wellbeing and satisfaction.

Authentic healing relationships – An authentic healing relationship is a deep participant-provider connection that is built intentionally by the provider using methods such as motivational interviewing, listening to participant stories, harm reduction, and trauma-informed care. Authentic healing relationships are secure, genuine, and continuous: participants feel seen and heard, and providers follow through and establish appropriate boundaries. Authentic healing relationships are associated with increased motivation and more active health management from participants.

Care coordination – Care coordination is the deliberate organization of consumer care activities between two or more providers, caregivers, or other individuals involved in a consumer’s care, in order to facilitate the effective delivery of health care services.

Consumer – A consumer is anyone who accesses and uses health care services. Consumers are sometimes referred to as patients, clients, or participants in other care settings.

Consumer engagement – Consumer engagement is the act of empowering the consumer – i.e., the patient, client, or participant – to be an equal and active member of the care team.

Cross-sector data sharingIndividuals with complex health and social needs often cycle through various systems, including healthcare, social services, and criminal justice, without cross-sector communication or coordination. Cross sector data-sharing agreements allow for data from multiple systems to be combined in order to gain a broader understanding of the gaps that exist across systems and to pinpoint process improvements to create systems better able to serve people with complex health and social needs.

Harm reduction – Interventions designed to reduce the negative consequences of harmful behaviors, most popularly associated with substance abuse, are known as harm reduction interventions. These can take many forms, but common examples include needle-exchange programs and opioid replacement therapies.

Health Information Exchange (HIE)– A system that electronically links medical records across health care systems and organizations. HIEs can give providers a more complete picture of consumers’ medical history and health care utilization, facilitate coordination of care across multiple systems, and assist in population health monitoring and data gathering. HIEs must abide by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and other laws that protect patient privacy.

Hotspotting – Hotspotting refers to the identification of outliers within any system. Within the context of treating individuals with complex health and social needs, it refers specifically to a data-driven process for the timely identification of high health care service utilization patterns in a defined region of the health care system.

Housing First – Housing First is a homelessness assistance model that prioritizes placing individuals in permanent housing quickly and with minimal barriers before addressing other or underlying issues. Unlike traditional housing models, which require individuals to “step” through different types of housing, participate in services, and demonstrate improvement (such as sobriety), Housing First provides a stable home without . Housing First models show 80-90% housing retention rates, compared with 30-60% retention rates in progression-based models.

Integrated care– Integrated care most often refers to the integration of behavioral health into the primary care setting and vice-versa. Integrated care aims to better treat the whole person, reduce the stigma often associated with substance use and mental health care, and improve coordination of care for consumers. Integrated care can also more broadly refer to cross-disciplinary models that address behavioral and social needs of consumers alongside medical needs.

Interdisciplinary care teams – Interdisciplinary care is an approach in which a diverse group of individuals work interdependently to effectively address multiple aspects of an individual’s wellbeing. Members of a team may include, for example, educators, physicians, social workers, nurses, lawyers, occupational and physical therapists, psychologists, and pharmacists.

Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) – MAT is the use of medications in conjunction with behavioral therapies and other interventions to treat substance abuse.

Person-centered care – Person-centered care (sometimes referred to as patient-centered care) is care that is respectful of, and responsive to, individual consumer preferences, needs and values. Person-centered care ensures that consumers’ values guide all clinical decisions.

Trauma-informed care– A framework to build safety and trust with participants in service of helping them improve their health. Trauma-informed care is a philosophical shift from blaming consumers for problematic health or health-seeking behaviors (i.e., “what is wrong with you?”) to understanding the roots of these behaviors in early life trauma (i.e., “what happened to you?”). A trauma-informed care approach assumes that all participants may have experienced early life trauma; recognizes that trauma shapes health, behavior, self-regard, and interaction with others; and works to avoid re-traumatizing participants.

Whole person care – Whole person care is care that coordinates all of the physical, mental health, addiction, and social services in a person-centered manner with the goals of achieving improved health and wellbeing through more efficient and effective use of resources.