What are some other commonly used terms in this field?

Ambulatory Intensive Care Unit (Ambulatory ICU) – Ambulatory ICU is a form of primary care designed to serve exclusively individuals with unstable chronic illness, complex behavioral health needs (including addiction), and often many social needs. In an ambulatory ICU model, people who are chronically ill have regular, frequent primary care visits. These routinized visits facilitate better relationships and allow clinicians to understand and treat issues before they become health crises or require referrals to specialists. The model has been found to reduce costs and improve wellbeing and satisfaction.

Authentic healing relationships – An authentic healing relationship is a deep participant-provider connection that is built intentionally by the provider using methods such as motivational interviewing, listening to participant stories, harm reduction, and trauma-informed care. Authentic healing relationships are secure, genuine, and continuous: participants feel seen and heard, and providers follow through and establish appropriate boundaries. Authentic healing relationships are associated with increased motivation and more active health management from participants.

Care coordination – Care coordination is the deliberate organization of consumer care activities between two or more providers, caregivers, or other individuals involved in a consumer’s care, in order to facilitate the effective delivery of health care services.

Consumer – A consumer is anyone who accesses and uses health care services. Consumers are sometimes referred to as patients or clients in other care settings.

Consumer engagement – Consumer engagement is the act of empowering the consumer – i.e., the patient, client, or participant – to be an equal and active member of the care team.

Harm reduction – Interventions designed to reduce the negative consequences of harmful behaviors, most popularly associated with substance abuse, are known as harm reduction interventions. These can take many forms, but common examples include needle-exchange programs and opioid replacement therapies.

Hotspotting – Hotspotting refers to the identification of outliers within any system. Within the context of treating individuals with complex health and social needs, it refers specifically to a data-driven process for the timely identification of high health care service utilization patterns in a defined region of the health care system.

Housing First – Housing First is a homelessness assistance model that prioritizes placing individuals in permanent housing quickly and with minimal barriers before addressing other or underlying issues. Unlike traditional housing models, which require individuals to “step” through different types of housing, participate in services, and demonstrate improvement (such as sobriety), Housing First provides a stable home without . Housing First models show 80-90% housing retention rates, compared with 30-60% retention rates in progression-based models.

Interdisciplinary care teams – Interdisciplinary care is an approach in which a diverse group of individuals work interdependently to effectively address multiple aspects of an individual’s wellbeing. Members of a team may include, for example, educators, physicians, social workers, nurses, lawyers, occupational and physical therapists, psychologists, and pharmacists.

Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) – MAT is the use of medications in conjunction with behavioral therapies and other interventions to treat substance abuse.

Person-centered care – Person-centered care (sometimes referred to as patient-centered care) is care that is respectful of, and responsive to, individual consumer preferences, needs and values. Person-centered care ensures that consumers’ values guide all clinical decisions.

Whole person care – Whole person care is care that coordinates all of the physical, mental health, addiction, and social services in a person-centered manner with the goals of achieving improved health and wellbeing through more efficient and effective use of resources.